Howard Gardner, is a psychologist, researcher and professor at Harvard University, known in the scientific field for his research in the analysis of cognitive abilities and for having formulated the theory of multiple intelligences, which did so awarded the Prince of Asturias Prize for Social Sciences in the year 2011.
The theory of multiple intelligences holds that there is not a unique intelligence in the human being, but a diversity of intelligences that work together, albeit as semi-autonomous entities that mark the significant potentialities and accents of each individual in a whole series of intelligence expansion scenarios; which contravenes decades of pedagogical practices since the reality is that, in the vast majority of schools, uniform curricula are adapted and developed in such a way that students have to study the same subjects presented in the same way even though this may not be ideal for that student.
Howard Gardner argues that, just as there are many types of problems to solve, there are also many types of intelligences.
He made the decision to write about "Multiple Intelligences" to highlight the unknown number of human capabilities, and "intelligences" to emphasize that these capabilities are as fundamental as those traditionally detected by the Intellectual Quotient (IQ).
- Linguistic-Verbal. It consists of language domination.
- Logical-Mathematical. Ability to conceptualize the logical relationships between actions or symbols.
- Spatial. Ability to recognize objects and get an idea of their characteristics, either as visual pictures.
- Musical. Ability to produce a piece of music.
- Body-Kinesthetic. Ability to coordinate body movements.
- Intrapersonal. Ability to know oneself, such as your feelings or thoughts, etc.
- Interpersonal. It's the ability to relate and get along with other people.
- Naturalist. Sensitivity shown by some people towards the natural world.
- Emotional. Mix between interpersonal and intrapersonal.
- Existential. Meditation of existence. It includes the meaning of life and death.
- Creative. It's about innovating and creating new things.
- Collaborative. Ability to choose the best option to achieve a goal by working as a team.
Today there are many teachers around the world who see in the theory of multiple intelligences as a tool when they identify children's strengths rather than their deficiencies (which is what was normally done), allowing adequate and clear thinking to recognize that we are all different.
Theories about intelligence are complex and numerous. Most psychology scientists rely on models based on psychometric techniques.
The measurement of behaviors and skills is indeed the foundation of scientific psychology. Thus intelligence is measured and its components analyzed. Statistical studies, involving thousands of studies around the world, show the existence of a g factor common to many other cognitive functions.